A comparison of the protestant reformation and the counter reformation

Historians no longer see the Counter-Reformation or the Catholic renewal as a revival of pre-Reformation Catholicism.

Protestant reformation vs counter reformation

Much of the research has focused on Lutheran Germany. This argument has a threefold implication: first, it points to the structural parallelism between Lutheran, Calvinist, and Catholic societies, with all manifesting "modern" traits of greater state and social coercion and self-disciplining; second, it argues that confessionalization created social groups, "the three confessions," by a variety of means, including the formulation of dogma, confessional propaganda, education, discipline, rituals, and religious language; and third, that confessionalization strengthened political centralization when the early modern state used religion to consolidate its territorial boundary, to incorporate the church into the state bureaucracy, and to impose social control on its subjects. The Protestant Reformation also capitalized on the popularity of printmaking in northern Europe. A major departure was in chronology. The reforms that resulted from this council are what set the basis for what is known as the Counter-Reformation. Overseas, large numbers of Catholic missionaries tried to bring their faith to cultures in newly discovered lands—by force if necessary. That latter interest was already sparked by a landmark essay, "Imperial Cities and the Reformation," by the German Reformation specialist Bernd Moeller. Confessional conflicts between Catholic and Protestant are of less concern for these historians, whose works deal with longer durations. Weaning the people away from their familiarity with medieval saints and folk beliefs, early modern Catholicism was in contrast a fearful, external, and coercive religion. Let us know! In the past, Protestant churches had celebrated major Reformation anniversaries by worshiping Martin Luther as a hero — but in recent years that approach changed. There were also attempts to reconvert areas of the world that had once been Roman Catholic—e. Essays may be lightly modified for readability or to protect the anonymity of contributors, but we do not edit essay examples prior to publication.

The Four Winds provided the public with almost a thousand etchings and engravings over two decades. In the Catholic Church, celibacy is obligatory for priests. The study of witchcraft reflects a strong current of interest in religious and social dissent that was rare in Reformation scholarship before the s.

counter reformation summary

The creation of a Catholic society of estates was in the making. The most significant impact of the Protestant Reformation on the family, as recent research argues, was the strengthening of patriarchy.

jesuits and the counter reformation

These reforms and growth did much to maintain Catholicism as the dominant Christian tradition. Other nuns worked outside their convents nursing the sick and running hospitals.

Protestant reformation and counter reformation similarities

Church-approved art, liturgical music and spiritual devotions were encouraged to focus the faithful, and new religious orders were allowed to form, the Jesuits being the most famous and influential. In his book, Catholicism between Luther and Voltaire, he dismisses the significance of the Counter-Reformation altogether: "The Counter-Reformation existed. This, taken together with revisionist scholarship on Protestantism that stressed the survival of medieval Christianity in Lutheran rituals and symbols, reveals a remarkable convergence. At the same time, many Christians were searching for new ways to express their devotion to God. Perhaps more than other fields of history, the study of Protestant and Catholic Europe had neglected the role of women, mirroring the marginalization of women in the discourses of Protestant reformers and in Tridentine Catholicism. Rubens was one of a number of Flemish Baroque painters who received many commissions, and produced several of his best known works re-filling the empty churches. This brought about a style that was more directly related to accurately portraying the present times. Catholic scholars revived scholasticism, a movement that blended Christian teachings with ancient philosophy. The rapid growth of Protestantism alarmed Catholics, and they demanded that church leaders deal with the situation. The first question addresses the notable differences in education, literacy, suicide rates, marital regimes, fertility rates, and social stratification between Catholic and Protestant societies.

Their remains are considered holy relics which are venerated. Many traditional iconographies considered without adequate scriptural foundation were in effect prohibited, as was any inclusion of classical pagan elements in religious art, and almost all nudity, including that of the infant Jesus.

what caused the counter reformation

The failure of the German proletariat-peasant alliance was due to the treason of the bourgeoisie namely Luther and the conservative forces of reform and its collaboration with the feudal ruling class in suppressing this revolution.

There are over 4, saints.

How did the catholic church respond to the protestant reformation

Subjects prominent in Catholic art other than Jesus and events in the Bible , such as Mary and saints were given much less emphasis or disapproved of in Protestant theology. This scholarly enthusiasm for popular religion mirrored the political activism of many practitioners, who identified the official church as one of the repressive institutions of society; it also represented a new interest in sources hitherto neglected by historians, namely the rich extant records of the Inquisition in Spain, Portugal, and Italy. Reading example essays works the same way! Schilling, Heinz, ed. The Protestant Reformation was a religious movement that occurred in Western Europe during the 16th century that resulted in a divide in Christianity between Roman Catholics and Protestants. While the theory of social discipline further refined its argument in the specific cases of Lutheran, Calvinist, and Catholic societies, its initial formulation was modified by a more nuanced dialectic between state intervention and social resistance. A pioneer historian of Catholic Europe, Henry Outram Evennett objected to "dealing [with] the concept of the Counter-Reformation as essentially 'reactionary' and backward-looking. Women and Gender in Early Modern Europe. There was little significant papal reaction to the Protestants or to demands for reform from within the Roman Catholic Church before mid-century. The first examples predate even the Reformation, when Waldensians in the mountainous regions between Switzerland, France, and Italy were hounded as heretics and witches. The establishment of the German Democratic Republic created the institutional basis for the further elaboration of the Marx-Engels thesis of the Reformation. Kirksville, Mo. Rubens was one of a number of Flemish Baroque painters who received many commissions, and produced several of his best known works re-filling the empty churches.

The pope Protestants are not open at all to papal primacy.

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The Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Reformation