InAfrican American men in the defeated Confederacy were given the right to vote and hold office—a radical departure from pre-Civil War days, when blacks could vote only in a handful of northern states.
John Brown was hanged on December 2, ; his trial riveted the nation, and he emerged as an eloquent voice against the injustice of slavery and a martyr to the abolitionist cause.
Reconstruction At the end of the Civil War, the South entered a period called Reconstruction — during which state governments were reorganized before the rebellious states were allowed to be readmitted to the Union. By freeing some 3 million black slaves in the rebel states, the Emancipation Proclamation deprived the Confederacy of the bulk of its labor forces and put international public opinion strongly on the Union side.
The first step was the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, How did African Americans challenge segregation and white supremacy? February 12, During the s, the owner of a slave named Dred Scott had taken him from the slave state of Missouri to the Wisconsin territory and Illinoiswhere slavery was outlawed, according to the terms of the Missouri Compromise of At the same time, southern black communities organized and mobilized.
A war begun to preserve the old Union without threatening slavery produced one of the greatest social revolutions of the nineteenth century.
After Abraham Lincoln was elected president in on the antislavery platform of the new Republican party, the Southern states seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. In the aftermath of the deadly and destructive Civil War, Congress endeavored to reunite North and South while granting citizenship rights to newly freed African Americans.