Ethics of human cloning essays articles

Moral issues of cloning

Molecular biology has introduced in modern medicine a new way to cure diseases, namely genetic therapy, direct intervention in the genetic makeup of an individual. Children conceived sexually are 'begotten, not made. The first successful interventions of gene therapy concerned patients suffering from severe combined immunodeficiency SCID , first performed in a 4-y-old girl at the National Institutes of Health in 22 , soon followed by successful trials in other countries It will provide my point of view in this topic and two other different arguments from both sides of the issue and finally determine which ones are great arguments. If a genetic defect is corrected in the affected cells, tissues, or organs, but not in the germ line, the ova or sperm produced by the individual will transmit the defect to the progeny. Indeed, it has been suggested that "aside from the moral debate on whether the embryo is a human being arguments about human dignity do not hold up well under rational reflection". For example, shortly after the birth of Dolly Sir John Polkinghorne noted that " [o]ne of the by-products of the furor about Dolly has been to remind thoughtful people of the poverty and implausibility of a genetic reductionist account of human nature". Dolly came into being not only asexually but also as the genetically identical copy of mature ewe, of whom she is a clone. Moreover, we must remember that the polymorphisms that count for natural selection are those that impact the probability of survival and reproduction of their carriers. Autonomy and Uniqueness At the heart of many of the human dignity arguments, often implicitly, is the idea that copying someone's genome is a morally problematic action. Many people are morally opposed to the possible consequences of women being able to give birth to themselves, or scientists. This consequence follows not only from gene therapy but also from typical medical treatments. Frequent negative effects include immune response against an extraneous object introduced into human tissues, leukemia, tumors, and other disorders provoked by vector viruses. The more harmful the effect of a mutation, the more rapidly it will be eliminated from the population by the process of natural selection.

Examples of multifactorial diseases are spina bifida and cleft palate. However, because the genetic determination is dominant a gene deletionone half of the progeny will, on the average, be born with the same genetic condition and will have to be treated.

Ethics of human cloning essays articles

If we consider the total human population, that is 60 mutations per person multiplied by 7 billion people, which is about billion new mutations per generation that are added to the preexisting 3—6 million polymorphic nucleotides per individual. However, in addition to the huge economic costs, technical hurdles remain. For example, Malby poses the question thus: "Does dignity impose a responsibility to protect a key feature of humanity our 'genetic heritage' , from which to an undetermined extent we acquire key capacities such as autonomy and the capacity for moral thought? Natural selection brings about genetic changes that often appear purposeful because they are dictated by the requirements of the environment. As noted by Pattinson, the act of cloning could be implicated in an intention to "violate the rights of the clone in the future. Today, science and technology has been introduced to where cloning can intentionally be done. In this paper, I briefly explore one of the most commonly used ethical justifications for cloning laws, the idea that reproductive cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. Moreover, the process of mutation introduces new variation in any population every generation. The eminent biologist E.

Within days, the public had called for ethics inquires and new laws banning cloning. Following this discovery, mice, pigs and cattle have been cloned based on the same concept.

human cloning articles pdf

From the perspective of human dignity, the concern is founded on the assumption that a clone's autonomy will be compromised and that a person's genome is singularly important to human uniqueness. Ina group of scientists took cloning a step further and cloned human embryos.

Indeed, most traditional legal applications of human dignity emphasize not the community but the protection of individual rights, often in an effort to guard against state imposed incursion upon individual autonomy. Examples of recessive disorders are cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, and sickle cell anemia caused by an allele that in heterozygous condition protects against malaria.

human cloning ethical issues essay

Can we clone humans? With surgical treatment, the mutant condition can be preserved, and new mutations arising each generation are added to those arisen in the past refs.

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Ethics of Human Cloning Essay