Physical cognitive and social personality of late adulthood

Both body structures can last in our 80s and beyond, if we take good care of them.

Late adulthood articles

SES and ethnic variations in health diminish in late adulthood, however, before age 85, SES predicts physical functioning. Muscles become weaker unless exercise programs are followed. Daily vitamin-mineral supplements can enhance immune response and decrease the risk of infectious diseases, but they do not protect against cardiovascular disease or cancer. Social behavior and off-target verbosity in elderly people. Lieberman, T. As a result, the lungs fill and empty less efficiently, causing the blood to absorb less oxygen and give off less carbon dioxide. In a predictable pattern after a loved one's death, initial shock is followed by grief, followed by apathy and depression, which may continue for weeks. People biologically age at different rates, which causes some people to "seem young" for their age and others to "seem old". People who are dying are sometimes placed in a hospice, a hospital for the terminally ill that attempts to maintain a good quality of life for the patient and the family during the final days. This will explain how health and wellness techniques in the late adulthood stages can mitigate the negative effects of aging. Denial: People believe there must be some mistake. However, many adults counteract loneliness by having active social lives, living in retirement communities, or participating in positive hobbies.

When people are prejudiced against the elderly and then become old themselves, their anti-elderly prejudice turns inward, causing depression.

Depending on cultural norms, beliefs, and standards, aging can be seen as an undesirable phenomenon, reducing beauty and bringing one closer to death, or as an accumulation of wisdom and status worthy of respect.

social development in adulthood

Many of the changes in the bodies and minds of older adults are due in part to a reduction in the size of the brain as well as loss of brain plasticity. What college students know about older adults: A cross-cultural qualitative study.

Underneath this facade, however, is a great deal of fear and other emotions. Learning Objectives Review the socioemotional changes and crises characteristic of late adulthood Key Takeaways Key Points As people age, they become more dependent on others.

Late adulthood quizlet

Whereas these seven tips are helpful for a smooth transition to retirement, Wang also notes that people tend to be adaptable, and that no matter how they do it, retirees will eventually adjust to their new lifestyles. If an academic and research career interests you, a PhD is usually required. Summary What is successful aging and what is pathological aging are questions that continue to prove a challenge to scientists and lay people around the world. The study of cognitive changes in the older population is complex. Structural changes in the eye make it harder to focus on nearby objects, see in dim light, and perceive color. For example, most of today's elderly were raised before , during segregation. There is also decreased sensitivity in all of the sensory modalities, including olfaction, taste, touch, hearing, and vision. Approximately one in ten older adults report being abused, and this number rises in the cases of dementia or physical limitations. In contrast to the United States, many countries view elderly citizens, especially men, in very high regard. People who believe they have had a positive impact on the world feel a sense of integrity, while those who feel they have not measured up to certain standards develop a sense of despair. As a person ages, the heart muscle becomes more rigid, and some of its cells die while others enlarge, leading the walls of the left ventricle to thicken. The heart muscle also becomes less responsive to signals from pacemaker cells within the heart.

Both environmental or lifestyle factors, such as smoking, and genetic factors, such as family history, increase the likelihood that people in later life will develop these diseases.

Perhaps the elderly are slower in part because they simply have more knowledge.

Cognitive development in late adulthood essay

This is due to changes in brain structures controlling sleep and higher levels of stress hormones in the bloodstream. Social behavior and off-target verbosity in elderly people. This class is not simply a discussion of nature vs. While fluid intelligence the ability to see and to use patterns and relationships to solve problems does decline in later years, crystallized intelligence the ability to use accumulated information to solve problems and make decisions has been shown to rise slightly over the entire life span. We will examine the multifaceted aspects of successful versus usual versus pathological aging. Cognitive changes in late adulthood are multifaceted. Cataracts are an extreme condition of lens opacity and are usually correctable with a simple operation to remove the faulty lens and replace it with an artificial lens. Salthouse, T. However, increasingly in modern societies, elder care is being provided by state or charitable institutions. But slower processing and less accurate executive control do not always mean worse memory, or even worse intelligence. In other words, they review the events of their lives and try to come to terms with the mark or lack thereof that they have made on the world. Although good nutrition and physical activity are most beneficial when they are lifelong, it is never too late to change. On the University of South Denmark website, Kaare summarizes the implications of this research: "There's no doubt that life expectancy is increasing, with no indication of it leveling off in the near future.
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Late Adulthood